This report aims at exploring the role of stress on human health and the impact physiology and socio economic factors place in increasing or decreasing stress level on human body. Stress is outcome of depression and circumstances which cause a disturbance in smooth mind set of a person and cause distractions related to his life and surroundings. The report is aimed at exploring the impact of stress on mental health of child and learning disability of nurses while promoting health care for patients suffering from stress (Graham et al., 2001). The report will also explain the role of good communication skills in order to overcome the challenges associated with stress management of patients. The report will identify the factors which are helpful in promotion of health care by devising suitable strategies in order to prevent illness and stress related factors.
During a study conducted at Health and Social Care Information Center, 5349 cases were reported in UK in which patients were admitted in hospitals due to stress related issues. The age group of the admitted patients varied 18-60. The total population of patients admitted comprised of 54 % patients while rest of them comprised of women and children (GREUBEL and KECKLUND, 2011). The reported days allocated to management of stress related issues of para medical staff during 2014-2015 took 43 % of total time period to be spent on stress management. The journal of Hypertension explained that that responses of nervous system of a patient comprises of several biochemical changes which occur in different parts of body initiated by brain. Hypothalamus is the part of the human brain which helps in controlling the nervous system and issues related to stressors which impair the performance of brain and impact the health of a human being. In order to cope up with stress related elements, hypothalamus generate extra energy and project it towards body muscles in order to stimulate adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are located at the top of two childneys in body and releases a hormone “adrenalin” which helps to cope up any kind of stress in human body. Epinephrine is another hormone which helps in smooth flow of blood in body by dilating blood in the lungs (Haynes et al., 2011). The dilated blood inside the lungs fasten the inhale and exhale of oxygen resulting in an increase in breathing rate which further stimulates the production of glucose on body.
Hypothalamus sends chemical messages in order to trigger adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from pituitary gland. (ACTH) is a powerful hormone which sends a signal to adrenal glands for release of cortisol which is a hormone used to meet energy demands of body. Cortisol has a wide reserves of stored nutrients which generate huge energy for body functioning and facilitate a person in order to cope up with stress level (Herkovits, 2001).
Other parts of brain direct messages for release of endorphins which is hormone that helps in relieving pain while stress or depression. The major symptoms of Stress include depression, stress, loss or sleep or appetite, irritability or stress. Other major symptoms include insomnia, headache, loss of interest in routine activity and poor eating habits. One of the adding factors in stress is alcohol or drug addiction (Herman, 2003). The patients suffering from stress or depression prefer isolation and try to avoid public gatherings which ultimately leads to social withdrawal.
The impact of stress on health conditions is even worse as it includes respiratory and cardiovascular problems like emphysema, asthma or breathing issues. In case a patient of stress is already suffering from breathing issues or any other respiratory diseases, it further adds to the problem and damages the health conditions of the patient in long run (Jones et al., 2011). The direct attack of stress hormone causes contraction of blood vessels and causes imbalanced blood pressure.
Socio economic factors have a direct impact on stress level of a person and varies from person to person. The socio economic factors which have a direct role to play for impacting the health conditions of a person include profession, income level, and education background, status in society and other social inequalities and dilemmas. In case a person is facing unreasonable behavior of people in his surrounding especially his loved ones who have a direct influence on his life, it is likely to impact health conditions of even a strong nerved person (Lees and Lal, 2016). The link between stress level and socio economic factors is strong and has to play a direct role in increasing or decreasing the stress level of a person.
Socio economic factors impact the level of stress countered by a person or individual which in return have an impact improving or effecting health conditions of a person. A person who have weak nerves and is more prone to stress can fall in perceived stress dilemma earlier than others in his surroundings. The problems which such weak nerved persons face while directly encountering health conditions include high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic issues.
Various studies on stress and depression have revealed that people living in a society have a direct impact of unemployment, professional status, income level and facilities provided by state (Mikkelsen, Saksvik and Landsbergis, 2000). Food, fuel and clothing directly impacts the status of a person which have a direct link with stress level. Diet, smoking or life style are not the only factors which impact the poor health of a person, there are several other factors which impact the stress level including cultural factors, people’s aspiration or sense of control practiced by people.
People with strong nerves have better understanding of sense of coherence and take little impact of external environment. Such individuals consider it a manageable thing to cope up with external challenges and uncertainties and have hidden power to cope up with stress (Pritchard, Elison-Bowers and Birdsall, 2009). Those who get impacted by external environment widely have less sense of coherence and have weak personality. This factor plays a direct role coping up with chronic stress in order to make up health level of a person by mitigating the impact of external environment.
Denied neighborhoods have deficient lodging and an absence of essential civilities and administrations, all of which can add a push to stress level. Adjusting security with open doors for children advancement adds to weight for parents (Torsney, 2010). Destitution and hardship are significant supporters to the wellbeing that exist between the wealthiest and poorest in the public arena. Financial hindrance ways on open doors for association, investment and commitment and can bring about feelings of sadness and despondency. It can create can stress and fortify social avoidance the influencing individual as well as families and group wellbeing.
Unfriendly financial circumstances have a combined impact for the duration of the life cause. For instance, low birth weight, which has a solid relationship with financial hardship results in wellbeing and social detriment in youth. Thus children naturally introduced to destitution and hardship are less inclined to make more advantageous decisions or advancement in training. Low levels of education is firmly connected to financial status (Usha and Geetha, 2010). Feelings of feebleness which might be genuine the capacity to practice some control over and oversee lives and wellbeing are firmly connected with hindrance and firmly relate with more elevated amounts of stress.
In context to stress management, Mental Health Foundation 2015 (MHF) is emphatically working two campaigns. To begin with, the ‘Psychological well-being Awareness Week’ is led so as to spread attention to maladjustment and prosperity issues. Under this wonder, the administrative spotlights on building and repairing connections among people that is key to campaign with issues, for example, stress. MHF (2005) trusts that solid and steady connections diminish propensities and dangers of emotional sickness and perpetual issue (Wells, 2011). It is essential to have solid backing of companions, associates, companions, and surroundings keeping in mind the end goal to defend and support emotional well-being.
These associations are crucial in making security in individual’s brain and give certainty while confronting challenges. MHF (2005) contended that solid social associations are more critical than sound eating routine and activity for mental solace. Social players are imperative for a person to take basic choices with respect to proficient and individual measurements of life. Through this crusade, MHF distinguishes and have a tendency to minimize hindrances that stop individuals in framing social connections and offer issues helpfully (Westman, 2011). Consequently, these hindrances lead individuals towards stretch and build hole of wellbeing disparity.
Stress is a mental condition, which results in damaging states of mind of individuals towards individual and expert measurements of life. This condition makes troublesome for them to create and manage connections, which is critical to manage the issue. MHF (2005) conducts ‘World Mental Health Day’ every year to help individuals managing stress (Westman, 2011). As per their measurements, 70 million days are lost from work every year in UK due mental conditions, for example, stress. Additionally, just quarter of these individuals got medicinal thoughtfulness regarding manage such issues and continue towards maintainability.
However, the remaining figure is unattended from adequate medical attention and left to self-tackle. With this campaign, MHF (2005) provides these people appropriate assistance, information, and informal support of family and friends. The organization believes that it is the best approach of providing guidance to people in an ongoing crisis. It may not cure them instantly, but will reduce chances of carrying stress lifetime.
The Mental Health Capacity Act (2005) defines a person who lakes capacity as one who is unable to make a decision for themselves because of an impairment in the functioning of their brain, Department of Health. Mental health nurses work with people of all ages using values-based mental health frameworks. (Graham et al., 2001). They care for people with different mental health issues, such as schizophrenia, depression, stress, alcohol or drug addiction alcohol services. Mental health nurses form part of an interdisciplinary team including social workers, psychiatrists, therapists and psychologists, Essentials of Nursing Practice.
Learning disability is defined by three core criteria, lower intellectual ability (usually an IQ of less than 70), significant impairment of social or adaptive functioning, and onset in childhood. The central role of a learning disability nurse is to identify and meet health needs of their patients, reducing inequalities and promoting better health.
Communication in the field of nursing is paramount, communication through pictures, and objects, signs and symbols are powerful tools that can be used to convey meaning. When communicating with a patient with learning disability and they are agitated, stressed or not the usual of them self-nurses should take the person’s lead, this may involve noticing small signals they make and acting on them, for example eye movement in the direction of the desired item or picking up what the patient wants to talk about, what they find important, for example a bereavement or family.
Children’s nurses or pediatric nursing is the specialty nursing care for children, usually from birth to the age of 19, as well there, families, in a different range of settings. They care for well children, promoting in the school nurse role. They work with other members of the health team such social services, doctors, nurses (GREUBEL and KECKLUND, 2011). The potential consequence of stress in early childhood for the pathogenies of adult disease is possible, at behavioral level, there is an extensive evidence of strong link between early adversity and a wide range of health threatening behaviors. In relation to traumatic stress in ill or injured children, nurses must ask parents what helps their child to cope with stress, or things that upset them.
Role of nurses in rehabilitation of Patients
Nurses utilize their insight and aptitudes to practice proficient promotion, and perceive when it fits to allude to free backing administrations to shield human rights. Nurses lead the pack in guaranteeing that individuals with learning incapacities get support that imaginatively addresses their physical, social, financial, mental, profound and different requirements, when surveying, arranging and to convey care.
Children nurses or pediatric nursing are the forte nursing look after children, more often than not from birth to the age of 19. The potential result of stress in early youth for the pathogenies of grown-up sickness is conceivable, at behavioral level, there is a broad proof of solid connection between early affliction and an extensive variety of wellbeing undermining practices. In connection to traumatic stress in sick or harmed child, nurses must ask parents what helps their child to adapt to stretch, or things that steamed them. As an attendant it is key to get the child included, this is finished by asking youngster what improves them feel or in the event that they need to discuss what it is that is annoying them, it can be distressing being in healing center and a tyke may think that it’s troublesome. It is likewise essential for parents to comprehend the sickness or what their youngster is experiencing and in addition the treatment arrangement. At the point when a tyke is in healing center, it is critical for parents to be with their tyke and that they ought to converse with their tyke about what is going on or disquieting them, American Academy of Pediatrics. Nurses ought to give consolation and reasonable want to illustration portray what is going to happen if a child is going to have a methodology done, furthermore to tell the tyke that there are numerous individuals who are cooperating so they can help the tyke.
From the nurse’s point of view, the most vital part of experience of Stress is its uniqueness for each individual. The experience of Stress, similar to the experience of agony, must be surveyed in every individual and ways to deal with Stress administration compatible with the people with the individual’s identity, encounters and values. Nurses need to get both a hypothetical comprehension of Stress with its belongings to give appositive commitment to the restorative administration of Stress related issue in their patients (Haynes et al., 2011). Socio economic factors impact the level of stress countered by a person or individual which in return have an impact improving or effecting health conditions of a person. A person who have weak nerves and is more prone to stress can fall in perceived stress dilemma earlier than others in his surroundings.
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Prepared by : Amna Abbasi